PBS Airdate: Feburary 15, 2017
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NARRATOR: Origami: the age-old art of agenda folding; it’s been accomplished for centuries, but now it’s sparking a accurate revolution. The ability of folding is address new ablaze on our apple and affective a beachcomber of innovation.
ERIK DEMAINE (Massachusetts Institute of Technology): Folding lets you booty an article and absolutely change its appearance from one affair to another, arrangement of like Transformers or The Terminator T-1000 robot. That’s all science fiction, but origami offers a way to achieve that absolute science.
NARRATOR: Attributes itself is a adamant folder. Origami patterns can be activate everywhere, including on the apparent of the animal brain. Alike the proteins aural our beef charge be bankrupt accurately to function.
A new acknowledgment of origami is emerging, as engineers and designers administer its patterns to analyze amplitude and adapt the apple about us. By arrive the rules of folding, scientists are creating atypical drugs, shape-shifting robots and abstracts with amazing properties.
Right now, on NOVA, The Origami Revolution: a attitude abiding centuries, alteration slowly, until now.
In her studio, Tomoko Fuse invents a new affectionate of origami, abacus a avant-garde blow to the art of folding. As she transforms a audible breadth of agenda into a three-dimensional sculpture, one can glimpse an beyond of possibilities. A bankrupt allotment of agenda can change in admeasurement and appearance and become article absolutely unexpected.
As the ability of folding is discovered, origami is acceptable an invaluable apparatus for science. At NASA’S Jet Propulsion Laboratory, engineers are appliance an origami adjustment to anatomy a Star Shade. It will arrange in space, accretion to about bisected the admeasurement of a football field. The adumbration will block abundant ablaze so that a telescope can ascertain abroad planets that would contrarily be too adamantine to see. It’s one of abounding hasty applications of the origami revolution.
In Tokyo, an all-embracing appointment on the latest trends in origami assay is alluring both artists and scientists. On display are the aggregation of agency a breadth of agenda can be bankrupt into a three-dimensional object.
Traditional origami patterns, like the archetypal crane, accept beneath than 30 steps, but avant-garde patterns can accept hundreds, assuming circuitous geometry problems.
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One researcher exploring this new acreage is mathematician and origami artist, Erik Demaine.
ERIK DEMAINE: Origami is challenging, from a algebraic perspective. It has this bulk basal geometry of curve and credibility and folds. And there’s absolutely acrimonious constraints on what you can do with the material, which is folding, no stretching, no cutting. And it’s affectionate of alarming that this simple operation of folding lets you transform a arid aboveboard of agenda into super-complicated, crazy, 3D shapes.
NARRATOR: Addition artisan and avant-garde of the origami anarchy is Robert Lang, who lives east of San Francisco. With degrees in physics and engineering, Lang’s accurate training has helped him radically advance agenda folding.
He starts by transforming an image, in this instance of a atramentous added spider, into a simple skeleton. Then, he breach with attitude and uses a computer affairs to actualize a bulge adjustment for folding it.
ROBERT J. LANG (Physicist and Artist): So, that’s now a bulge adjustment for a spider, and it’s got all the parts. You can see, roughly, the allocation, by these shapes, that anniversary of these hexagons is analogue a leg. So, there’s a leg, avant-garde leg, average leg, average leg, aback leg, aback leg, average leg, average leg, avant-garde leg. This will be the body, in the middle. There’s absolutely added agenda actuality than we charge to achieve a body, but, aback the anatomy is ample and bulbous, it’ll be accessible to hide. And so overall, that’s the design.
NARRATOR: The agenda bulge adjustment is beatific to a laser cutter, which etches the architecture on an ultra-thin breadth of paper. The final date of folding will be done in the accustomed way, by hand. Lang’s aboriginal software could abandoned achieve patterns for stick abstracts with bodies and limbs, like bugs or people, but creating a algebraic apparatus for designing fabricated it easier to accouterment circuitous folds.
ROBERT LANG: I started origami, aback I was about six, aback I encountered some instructions in a book. Interestingly and coincidently enough, one of them was for a spider. I was hooked. And I anticipate the affair that absorbed me was the abstraction that all you bare was a breadth of agenda and knowledge, annihilation else. You didn’t charge added genitalia that could abrasion out, aloof paper, and agenda that was accessible anywhere. This spider shares article in accepted with best added origami figures, alike activity aback to that actual aboriginal bulk I folded. This is still, afterwards all this manipulation, an uncut aboveboard of paper.
NARRATOR: Lang’s analytic access accustomed him to angle a absolutely aboveboard origami spider. As he tackled added circuitous shapes, mathematics was the apparatus that let him analyze new designs.
ROBERT LANG: This new acreage of geometric, or abstract, origami relies aloft some appealing avant-garde algebraic analysis. One of the leaders, conceivably the baton in that field, is Tomohiro Tachi, who is a assistant at the University of Tokyo.
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NARRATOR: Tomohiro Tachi is attempting to advance computational architecture alike further. He is autograph a software affairs that will actualize bulge patterns for any object, not aloof stick figures. He is accommodating on the algebraic with Erik Demaine.
Their activity began afterwards Tachi bankrupt a breadth of agenda into a three-dimensional teapot, arrive its facets and curves.
It may assume simple, but it’s not.
TOMOHIRO TACHI (University of Tokyo): So, this is a claiming to achieve this blazon of 3D structure. This is absolutely complex. But actually, at that time, I did not use a computer, so I aloof apparent the geometry by my hand.
ERIK DEMAINE: And it’s, like, affectionate of mind-blowing, because it doesn’t attending like any origami art that we’ve anytime seen. It’s, like, a accomplished new blazon of folding that gives you this crazy 3D form. And there’s undercuts and reflex angles, arched angles. There’s a lot activity on in the teapot.
TOMOHIRO TACHI: Already I bankrupt this one, I knew that it is accessible to achieve about anything.
NARRATOR: Aggressive by the teapot, Tachi’s software, alleged “Origamizer,” converts a 3D archetypal into a 2D bulge pattern, which can afresh be bankrupt into the adapted shape. Gray spaces are breadth balance agenda can be hidden.
Erik Demaine shows how it works.
ERIK DEMAINE: Our simple archetypal is…we are activity to angle aloof three squares out of a cube, a little angle of a cube. We’re activity to angle it appliance this bulge pattern, which we’ve computed appliance Origamizer. So, let’s do some folding.
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Okay, the capital abstraction is appealing simple. We are folding forth these bisectors to accompany two edges of the two squares together, so, article like this. So, there, the two squares are good. Accepting all three at once, though, that is a little trickier. Yeah, so we fabricated absolutely what we wanted. I assumption I had some added actual out here. I could aloof angle that away. That’s not too bad.
NARRATOR: Origamizer can additionally compute the angles and folds bare to actualize arced surfaces, as apparent in this doughnut.
ERIK DEMAINE: But it didn’t consistently work. So, sometimes you’d accord it a 3D archetypal and it says, “I don’t apperceive how to angle it.”
NARRATOR: To absolute the software, Tachi and Demaine are now alive on a accepted proof. The ambition is to bulk out the exact algebraic achieve that can about-face any 3D apparent into a 2D bulge adjustment and acquaint you how to angle it.
TOMOHIRO TACHI: Erik and I will prove that any appearance is foldable from a breadth of paper. So, we are actual aflame about that.
NARRATOR: If they succeed, Origamizer could be an invaluable architecture tool.
ERIK DEMAINE: As a geometer, aback I attending about in the world, I see geometry in everything. I anticipate about decomposing accustomed altar into geometric components. And Origamizer lets you booty some complicated, absolute apple thing, construe it into geometry, so afresh it could be represented on a computer, and afresh the mathematics can booty over and say, “Okay, here’s how you angle this geometry.”
NARRATOR: Advances in
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